At 11:02, realising that so sharp a turn would open the range too much, Beatty ordered "Course NE" to limit the turn to 45° and then added "Engage the enemy's rear", to clarify his intent that the other ships, which had now left Lion far behind, should pursue the main German force. With Lion′s electric generators out of action, Beatty could only signal using flag hoists and both signals were flown at the same time.
The combination of the signal "Course NE"—which happened to be the direction of Blücher—and the signal to engage the rear was misunderstood by Beatty's second-in-command, Rear-Admiral Gordon Moore on New Zealand, as an order for all the battlecruisers to finish off Blücher. The British battlecruisers broke off the pursuit of the German squadron and attacked Blücher, with most of the British light cruisers and destroyers joining in. Beatty tried to correct this obvious misunderstanding by using the order from Horatio Nelson at the Battle of Trafalgar "Engage the enemy more closely" but this order was not in the signal book and Beatty chose "Keep nearer to the enemy" as the closest equivalent. By the time this signal was hoisted, Moore's ships were too far away to read Beatty's flags and the correction was not received. Despite the overwhelming odds, Blücher put the British destroyer HMS Meteor out of action and scored two hits on the British battlecruisers with its 21 cm (8.3 in) guns. Blücher was hit by about 70 shells and wrecked. When struck by two torpedoes from the light cruiser Arethusa, Blücher capsized at 54 25' N. Lat., 5 25' E. Long and sank at 13:13, with the loss of 792 crew. British ships began to rescue survivors but were interrupted by the arrival of the Zeppelin L-5 (LZ-28) and by a German seaplane, which attacked with small bombs. No damage was done but the British ships put on speed and withdrew to avoid further aerial attack, leaving some of the survivors behind. By this time, the rest of the German ships were too far away for the British to catch up.
Lion made 10 kn (19 km/h; 12 mph) at the beginning of the 300 nmi (560 km; 350 mi) return voyage, escorted by Indomitable. Beatty contemplated leaving a flotilla of destroyers to guard Lion and sending the rest to the German Bight, to make a night attack on the German ships but the damage to Lion caused more problems. As it crept home, the ship suffered further engine-trouble from salt water contamination in the boiler-feed-water system and its speed dropped to 8 kn (15 km/h; 9.2 mph). Lion was taken in tow by Indomitable, an operation which took two hours, in which the battlecruisers were exceedingly vulnerable to submarine attacks.

投稿日時 - 2019-09-16 22:57:27




>At 11:02, realising that ~ flown at the same time.

>The combination of the signal ~ and destroyers joining in.

>Beatty tried to correct this obvious misunderstanding by using the order from Horatio Nelson at the Battle of Trafalgar* ~ about 70 shells and wrecked.
*Battle of Trafalgar「トラファルガーの海戦」:ナポレオンが配下の派遣軍を使って英国軍をカリブ海方面に引き寄せ、そのすきに本隊がロンドンを突こうとしたが、その意図に気づいた英国軍のネルソン提督がこれを追尾して英国軍の大勝に導いた(ただし、ネルソン自身は戦死した)。

>When struck by two torpedoes ~ for the British to catch up.

>Lion made 10 kn (19 km/h; 12 mph) ~ vulnerable to submarine attacks.
⇒ライオン号は、インドミタブル号の付き添いを得て10ノット(時速19キロ/12マイル)の速度で、300海里(560キロ; 350マイル)の里程の復航の途についた。ビーティーは、ライオン号を守るために駆逐艦の艦隊を残し、残りをドイツの湾に送り、ドイツ軍の船艦に夜間攻撃を加えることを考えていたが、ライオン号の損傷がより多くの問題を引き起こした。本国を目指して徐行で進むにつれて、この船艦はボイラー給水システムの塩水汚染によってエンジン不調にさらされ、速度は8ノット(時速15キロ/9.2マイル)に低下した。(ついに)ライオン号はインドミタブル号にけん引されるに至って、2時間かかったが、その間中これらの巡洋戦艦は潜水艦攻撃に対して非常な脆弱性を露呈した。

投稿日時 - 2019-09-21 21:45:04



投稿日時 - 2019-09-23 19:17:00