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Inland the ground was mainly meadow, cut by canals, dykes, drainage ditches and roads built up on causeways. The Lys, Yser and upper Scheldt had been canalised and between them the water level underground was close to the surface, rose further in the autumn and filled any dip, the sides of which then collapsed. The ground surface quickly turned to a consistency of cream cheese and on the coast troops were confined to roads, except during frosts.
The rest of the Flanders Plain was woods and small fields, divided by hedgerows planted with trees and cultivated from small villages and farms. The terrain was difficult for infantry operations because of the lack of observation, impossible for mounted action because of the many obstructions and difficult for artillery because of the limited view. South of La Bassée Canal around Lens and Béthune was a coal-mining district full of slag heaps, pit-heads (fosses) and miners' houses (corons). North of the canal, the city of Lille, Tourcoing and Roubaix formed a manufacturing complex, with outlying industries at Armentières, Comines, Halluin and Menin, along the Lys river, with isolated sugar beet and alcohol refineries and a steel works near Aire-sur-la-Lys. Intervening areas were agricultural, with wide roads on shallow foundations and unpaved mud tracks in France and narrow pavé roads, along the frontier and in Belgium. In France, the roads were closed by the local authorities during thaws to preserve the surface and marked by Barrières fermėes, which were ignored by British lorry drivers. The difficulty of movement after the end of summer absorbed much local labour on road maintenance, leaving field defences to be built by front-line soldiers. By 4 October, the troops under Maud'huy were in danger of encirclement, German troops had reached Givenchy, north-west of Vimy and the French division on the northern flank was separated from the cavalry operating further north; a gap had also been forced between X Corps and the Territorial divisions to the south. Castelnau and Maud'huy wished to withdraw but rather than lose all of northern France, Joffre created a new Tenth Army, from Maud'huy's forces and gave Castelnau a directive, to maintain the Second Army in its positions, until the pressure of operations further north, diminished the power of German attacks between the Oise and the Somme. Foch was appointed deputy to Joffre and given command of all French troops in the north. On 6 October, the French line from the Oise to Arras was secured; Joffre and French had also agreed to concentrate the BEF around Doullens, Arras and St Pol, ready for operations on the left of the Tenth Army.

投稿日時 - 2019-04-20 14:54:48

QNo.9608693

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>Inland the ground was mainly meadow, cut by canals, dykes, drainage ditches and roads built up on causeways. The Lys, Yser and upper Scheldt had been canalised and between them the water level underground was close to the surface, rose further in the autumn and filled any dip, the sides of which then collapsed. The ground surface quickly turned to a consistency of cream cheese and on the coast troops were confined to roads, except during frosts.
⇒内陸の地面はおもに牧草地で、運河、堤防、排水路、および土手道に築かれた道路によって仕切られていた。リィス、イゼール、および上流のシェルドは運河化されており、それらの間の地下水路の水位は地表に近く、秋にはさらに上がるので、水面がいっぱいになると水面は崩れて溢れる。(すると)地表はすぐに一様のクリームチーズ状に変わるので、沿岸では、霜の時を除いて、軍隊の活動は道路上に限られた。

>The rest of the Flanders Plain was woods and small fields, divided by hedgerows planted with trees and cultivated from small villages and farms. The terrain was difficult for infantry operations because of the lack of observation, impossible for mounted action because of the many obstructions and difficult for artillery because of the limited view. South of La Bassée Canal around Lens and Béthune was a coal-mining district full of slag heaps, pit-heads (fosses) and miners' houses (corons). North of the canal, the city of Lille, Tourcoing and Roubaix formed a manufacturing complex, with outlying industries at Armentières, Comines, Halluin and Menin, along the Lys river, with isolated sugar beet and alcohol refineries and a steel works near Aire-sur-la-Lys.
⇒フランドル平原の他の地帯は森や小さな畑であって、栽培畑に植えられた木々や生け垣によって小さな村や農場が区切られていた。地形については、観測不良のため歩兵隊の作戦行動が困難であり、多くの障害物のために騎馬隊の戦闘行動は不可能であり、視野が限られているため砲撃は厄介であった。レンズやベトゥーン周辺を通るラ・バセ運河の南は、ぼた山(炭鉱の残岩)、坑道出入口、鉱山労働者の家でいっぱいの炭鉱地区であった。運河の北にあるリール、トゥルコアン、ルーベの各都市は、製造複合施設を形成していた。リィス川沿いのアルマンティエール、コミーヌ、ハルイン、メニンには郊外産業があって、それは、孤立したテンサイ(砂糖大根)畑、アルコール精製所、エール=シュル=ラ=リィス近くの製鉄所などであった。

>Intervening areas were agricultural, with wide roads on shallow foundations and unpaved mud tracks in France and narrow pavé roads, along the frontier and in Belgium. In France, the roads were closed by the local authorities during thaws to preserve the surface and marked by Barrières fermėes, which were ignored by British lorry drivers. The difficulty of movement after the end of summer absorbed much local labour on road maintenance, leaving field defences to be built by front-line soldiers.
⇒中間帯にある地域は農地で、フランスではそこに広い道路があるが、それは浅い基盤の上に造られているか、さもなければ未舗装の泥道であった。ベルギーでは狭い舗装道路が国境や国内を走っていた。フランスでは、路面を保護するために融雪(ぬかるみ)の間は地方自治体によって道路が閉鎖され、「バリエール・フェルメー」(閉鎖保護地区)という標識が掲示されていたが、英国の大型トラック運転手には無視されていた。

>By 4 October, the troops under Maud'huy were in danger of encirclement, German troops had reached Givenchy, north-west of Vimy and the French division on the northern flank was separated from the cavalry operating further north; a gap had also been forced between X Corps and the Territorial divisions to the south. Castelnau and Maud'huy wished to withdraw but rather than lose all of northern France, Joffre created a new Tenth Army, from Maud'huy's forces and gave Castelnau a directive, to maintain the Second Army in its positions, until the pressure of operations further north, diminished the power of German attacks between the Oise and the Somme. Foch was appointed deputy to Joffre and given command of all French troops in the north. On 6 October, the French line from the Oise to Arras was secured; Joffre and French had also agreed to concentrate the BEF around Doullens, Arras and St Pol, ready for operations on the left of the Tenth Army.
⇒10月4日のころ、モーデュイ麾下の部隊は囲い込みの危険にさらされ、ドイツ軍がヴィミー北西のジバンシーに到達したので、北側面にあるフランス軍師団は、さらにその北側で作戦行動している騎兵隊から分離された。南でも、第X軍団と国防義勇軍の諸師団との間に間隙があった。カステルノーとモーデュイは撤退を望んだが、ジョフルは、フランス北部の全てを失うことのないよう、モーデュイ軍団から新しい第10方面軍を創設して、そこよりさらに北での作戦行動が圧力となってオワーズとソンムの間のドイツ軍の攻撃の力を弱めるべく、第2方面軍がその陣地を維持するようカステルノーに指示した。ジョフルの代理にフォッシュが任命され、北部の全フランス軍の指揮権を与えられた。10月6日に、オワーズからアラスに通じるフランス軍戦線が確保された。ジョフルとフレンチはまた、ドゥーレン、アラス、サン・ポルにBEFを集結させ、第10方面軍の左翼での作戦行動に備えることに合意した。

投稿日時 - 2019-04-23 10:22:25

お礼

回答ありがとうございました。

投稿日時 - 2019-04-23 14:52:43

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