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When the French advanced on 24 September, they met a German attack rather than an open flank and by 29 September, the Second Army had been reinforced to eight corps and extended north but was still opposed by German forces near Lille, rather than an open flank. The German 6th Army had also found that on arrival in the north, it was forced to oppose the French attack rather than advance around the flank and that the secondary objective of protecting the northern flank of the German armies in France, had become the main task. By 6 October, the French needed British reinforcements to withstand German attacks around Lille. The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) had begun to move from the Aisne to Flanders on 5 October and reinforcements from England assembled on the left flank of the Tenth Army, which had been formed from the left flank units of the Second Army on 4 October. The Allies and the Germans attempted to take more ground, after the "open" northern flank had disappeared, Franco-British attacks towards Lille in October, being followed up by attempts to advance between the BEF and the Belgian army by a new French Eighth Army. The moves of the German 7th and then the 6th Army from Alsace and Lorraine, had been intended to secure German lines of communication through Belgium, where the Belgian army had sortied several times from the National redoubt of Belgium, during the period between the Franco-British retreat and the Battle of the Marne. In August British marines had landed at Dunkirk. In October a new German 4th Army was assembled from the III Reserve Corps, the siege artillery used against Antwerp and four of the new reserve corps training in Germany. The North-east of France and the south-west Belgium are known as Flanders. West of a line between Arras and Calais in the north-west, lie chalk downlands covered with soil sufficient for arable farming. To the east of the line, the land declines in a series of spurs into the Flanders plain, bounded by canals linking Douai, Béthune, Saint-Omer and Calais. To the south-east, canals run between Lens, Lille, Roubaix and Courtrai, the Lys river from Courtrai to Ghent and to the north-west lay the sea. The plain is almost flat, apart from a line of low hills from Cassel, east to Mont des Cats, Mont Noir, Mont Rouge, Scherpenberg and Mont Kemmel. From Kemmel, a low ridge lies to the north-east, declining in elevation past Ypres through Wytschaete, Gheluvelt and Passchendaele, curving north then north-west to Dixmude where it merged with the plain. A coastal strip about 10 miles (16 km) wide was near sea level and fringed by sand dunes.

投稿日時 - 2019-04-20 14:53:22

QNo.9608691

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>When the French advanced on 24 September, they met a German attack rather than an open flank and by 29 September, the Second Army had been reinforced to eight corps and extended north but was still opposed by German forces near Lille, rather than an open flank. The German 6th Army had also found that on arrival in the north, it was forced to oppose the French attack rather than advance around the flank and that the secondary objective of protecting the northern flank of the German armies in France, had become the main task.
⇒フランス軍が9月24日に前進したとき、彼らは開放側面に出会うどころかドイツ軍の攻撃に遭遇し、第2方面軍は9月29日ごろに開放側面隊ではなく8個大隊に強化されて北側へ拡張した。ドイツ第6方面軍もまた、北に到着したとき、側面周辺を前進するのではなくフランスの攻撃に対抗することを余儀なくされ、フランスに布陣するドイツ方面軍の北側面を保護するという第2の目的がおもな任務となった。

>By 6 October, the French needed British reinforcements to withstand German attacks around Lille. The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) had begun to move from the Aisne to Flanders on 5 October and reinforcements from England assembled on the left flank of the Tenth Army, which had been formed from the left flank units of the Second Army on 4 October. The Allies and the Germans attempted to take more ground, after the "open" northern flank had disappeared, Franco-British attacks towards Lille in October, being followed up by attempts to advance between the BEF and the Belgian army by a new French Eighth Army.
⇒10月6日のころ、リール周辺でのドイツ軍の攻撃に持ち耐えるためフランス軍は英国軍の増援を必要としていた。10月5日に英国軍遠征隊(BEF)がエーヌからフランドルへの移動を始め、第10方面軍の左側面に英国からの増援隊が集まったが、それは(すでに)10月4日に第2方面軍の左翼部隊から編成されていたものであった。連合国軍もドイツ軍も、10月の「開いた」北側面が消えた後、より多くの地面を奪取しようと画策した。10月に仏英攻撃隊がリールへ向かったが、新しい仏英方面軍によってBEFとベルギー軍の共同進軍の企てがこれに続いた。

>The moves of the German 7th and then the 6th Army from Alsace and Lorraine, had been intended to secure German lines of communication through Belgium, where the Belgian army had sortied several times from the National redoubt of Belgium, during the period between the Franco-British retreat and the Battle of the Marne. In August British marines had landed at Dunkirk. In October a new German 4th Army was assembled from the III Reserve Corps, the siege artillery used against Antwerp and four of the new reserve corps training in Germany.
⇒アルザスやロレーヌから第7方面軍とその後の第6方面軍が移動したが、それはベルギーを通るドイツ軍の交通通信線を確保することを意図していた。そこでは、仏英軍が撤退してから「マルヌの戦い」までの間ベルギー方面軍だけで何度もドイツ軍に突撃していたのである。8月に英国軍海兵隊がダンキルクに上陸し、10月には第III予備軍団からの新しい第4方面軍が集結し、アントワープ(のドイツ軍)やドイツで訓練中の新しい4個予備軍団に対抗するために起用された攻城砲隊もそこに集結した。

>The North-east of France and the south-west Belgium are known as Flanders. West of a line between Arras and Calais in the north-west, lie chalk downlands covered with soil sufficient for arable farming. To the east of the line, the land declines in a series of spurs into the Flanders plain, bounded by canals linking Douai, Béthune, Saint-Omer and Calais. To the south-east, canals run between Lens, Lille, Roubaix and Courtrai, the Lys river from Courtrai to Ghent and to the north-west lay the sea.
⇒フランスの北東とベルギーの南西はフランドルとして知られていた。北西部のアラスとカレーの間の戦線の西側には、耕作用として十分な土壌で覆われた石灰層の低地があった。戦線の東では、土地は一連の山脚を下ってフランドル平原に入り、ドゥエー、ベトゥーン、サン・オメール、およびカレーを結ぶ運河につながる。南東部では、レンズ、リール、ルーベー、コートレの間を運河が走っており、コートレからゲントへ向ってリィス川が流れ、その北西に海がある。

>The plain is almost flat, apart from a line of low hills from Cassel, east to Mont des Cats, Mont Noir, Mont Rouge, Scherpenberg and Mont Kemmel. From Kemmel, a low ridge lies to the north-east, declining in elevation past Ypres through Wytschaete, Gheluvelt and Passchendaele, curving north then north-west to Dixmude where it merged with the plain. A coastal strip about 10 miles (16 km) wide was near sea level and fringed by sand dunes.
⇒この平野は、カッセルからモン・デ・キャッツ、モン・ノワール、モン・ルージュ、シェルペンベルク、モン・ケメルまでの丘陵地を除いて、ほぼ平坦である。ケメルから北東に向って低い尾根があり、丘へ下がってイープルを過ぎ、ウィツシェト、ゲルベルト、パッシェンデーレを通って北へ曲がり、次いで北西に曲がってディクスムードまで続くが、そこで平野と合流している。幅約10マイル(16キロ)の沿岸帯は海面近くにあり、砂丘で縁取られていた。

投稿日時 - 2019-04-22 23:11:12

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回答ありがとうございました。

投稿日時 - 2019-04-23 14:51:51

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