A coastal strip about 10 miles (16 km) wide,was near sea level and fringed by sand dunes. Inland the ground was mainly meadow, cut by canals, dykes, drainage ditches and roads built up on causeways. The Lys, Yser and upper Scheldt had been canalised and between them the water level underground was close to the surface, rose further in the autumn and filled any dip, the sides of which then collapsed. The ground surface quickly turned to a consistency of cream cheese and on the coast troops were confined to roads, except during frosts.
The rest of the Flanders Plain was woods and small fields, divided by hedgerows planted with trees and cultivated from small villages and farms. The terrain was difficult for infantry operations because of the lack of observation, impossible for mounted action because of the many obstructions and difficult for artillery because of the limited view. South of La Bassée Canal around Lens and Béthune was a coal-mining district full of slag heaps, pit-heads (fosses) and miners' houses (corons). North of the canal, the city of Lille, Tourcoing and Roubaix formed a manufacturing complex, with outlying industries at Armentières, Comines, Halluin and Menin, along the Lys river. With isolated sugar beet and alcohol refineries and a steel works near Aire-sur-la-Lys, the intervening areas were agricultural, with wide roads on shallow foundations and unpaved mud tracks in France, narrow pavé roads along the frontier and in Belgium. In France, the roads were closed by the local authorities during thaws, to preserve the surface and marked by Barrières fermėes signs, which were ignored by British lorry drivers. The difficulty of movement after the end of summer absorbed much of the local labour on road maintenance, leaving field defences to be built by front-line soldiers. The 1st and 2nd Cavalry divisions under General Allenby, covered the assembly of the III Corps at St. Omer and Hazebrouck from 10–12 October, to allow the III Corps to advance eastwards towards Lille. The cavalry was ordered to extend as far north as Ypres. In front of the First Cavalry Corps, was a line of hills from Mont des Cats to Mont Kemmel, about 400 feet (120 m) above sea level, with spurs running south across the British line of advance, occupied by the German IV Cavalry Corps with three divisions. On 12 October, the British cavalry advanced and found the Germans dug in on Mont des Cats and at Flêtre, on the road from Cassel to Bailleul. The 3rd Cavalry Brigade attacked Mont des Cats, up slopes covered in hop-fields towards a monastery on the hilltop, with dismounted cavalry attacking from the west and mounted cavalry with a battery of horse artillery from the south. Next day the cavalry advanced onto high ground east of Mont des Cats and occupied Mont Noir, 3 miles (4.8 km) north of Bailleul. On 14 October, the cavalry advanced north-eastwards, occupied Dranoutre and Kemmel against slight opposition and then reached a line from Dranoutre to Wytschaete, linking with the 3rd Cavalry Division of IV Corps, which had been operating in Belgium since early October.

投稿日時 - 2019-04-11 02:43:10




>A coastal strip about ~ except during frosts.

>The rest of the Flanders ~ along the Lys river.

>With isolated sugar beet ~ by front-line soldiers.

>The 1st and 2nd Cavalry ~ from Cassel to Bailleul.
⇒アレンビー将軍麾下の第1、第2騎兵師団は、10月10日-12日にサン・オメールとアズブルックの第III軍団の集結を援護し、第III軍団がリールに向かって東へ進軍できるように計らった。騎兵隊はイープルまで北方へ広がるよう命じられた。第1騎兵軍団の前には、モン・デ・キャッツからモン・ケメルまでの丘陵地帯があり、標高約400フィート(120 m)で、山脚が英国軍の前進線を横切って南に走っていたが、それをドイツ軍第IV騎兵軍団が3個師団をもって占領した。10月12日、英国軍の騎兵隊が前進してみると、ドイツ軍がカッセルからバイユールに至る沿道のモン・デ・キャッツとフレトルで塹壕を掘ってあるのを発見した。

>The 3rd Cavalry Brigade ~ Belgium since early October.

投稿日時 - 2019-04-17 19:24:08



投稿日時 - 2019-04-18 23:09:17