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A German attack on 24 September, forced the French onto the defensive and Joffre reinforced the northern flank of the Second Army. As BEF units arrived, operations began piecemeal on the northern flank; the Belgian army refused a request by Joffre to leave the National redoubt of Belgium and sortie against German communications. A Franco-British offensive was substituted towards Lille and Antwerp. The allied troops managed to advance towards Lille and the Lys river but were stopped by German attacks in the opposite direction on 20 October. The "race" ended on the Belgian coast around 17 October, when the last open area from Dixmude to the North Sea, was occupied by Belgian troops withdrawing from Antwerp after the Siege of Antwerp (28 September – 10 October). The outflanking attempts resulted in indecisive encounter battles through Artois and Flanders, at the Battle of La Bassée (10 October – 2 November), the Battle of Messines (12 October – 2 November) and the Battle of Armentières (13 October – 2 November). Terrain
North-east France and the south-west Belgium are known as Flanders. West of a line between Arras and Calais in the north-west are chalk downlands, covered with soil sufficient for arable farming. East of the line, the land declines in a series of spurs into the Flanders plain, bounded by canals linking Douai, Béthune, St Omer and Calais. To the south-east, canals run between Lens, Lille, Roubaix and Courtrai, the Lys river from Courtrai to Ghent and to the north-west lies the sea. The plain is almost flat, apart from a line of low hills from Cassel, eastwards to Mont des Cats, Mont Noir, Mont Rouge, Scherpenberg and Mount Kemmel. From Kemmel, a low ridge lies to the north-east, declining in elevation past Ypres through Wytschaete, Gheluvelt and Passchendaele, curving north then north-west to Dixmude where it merges with the plain. A coastal strip is about 10 mi (16 km) wide, near sea level and fringed by sand dunes. Inland the ground is mainly meadow, cut by canals, dykes, drainage ditches and roads built up on causeways. The Lys, Yser and upper Scheldt are canalised and between them the water level underground is close to the surface, rises further in the autumn and fills any dip, the sides of which then collapse. The ground surface quickly turns to a consistency of cream cheese and on the coast movement is confined to roads, except during frosts.

投稿日時 - 2019-03-12 15:41:36

QNo.9596113

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>A German attack on 24 September, forced the French onto the defensive and Joffre reinforced the northern flank of the Second Army. As BEF units arrived, operations began piecemeal on the northern flank; the Belgian army refused a request by Joffre to leave the National redoubt of Belgium and sortie against German communications. A Franco-British offensive was substituted towards Lille and Antwerp. The allied troops managed to advance towards Lille and the Lys river but were stopped by German attacks in the opposite direction on 20 October.
⇒9月24日に行われたドイツ軍の攻撃によってフランス軍は防御の立場へと追いやられたので、ジョフルは第2方面軍の北側面を強化した。BEFの部隊が到着すると、部分的に北側面で作戦行動が始まった。ベルギー軍は、ベルギー国家としての砦を撤回してドイツ軍の連絡通信線に対抗するように、というジョフルの要求を拒否した。仏英軍の攻勢はリールとアントワープ方面に転向した。この連合軍はリールとリス川に向かって前進することに成功したが、10月20日にドイツ軍による対抗攻撃によって阻止された。

>The "race" ended on the Belgian coast around 17 October, when the last open area from Dixmude to the North Sea, was occupied by Belgian troops withdrawing from Antwerp after the Siege of Antwerp (28 September – 10 October). The outflanking attempts resulted in indecisive encounter battles through Artois and Flanders, at the Battle of La Bassée (10 October – 2 November), the Battle of Messines (12 October – 2 November) and the Battle of Armentières (13 October – 2 November).
⇒ベルギー沿岸での「(海への)競争」は、ディクスミュードから北海までの最後のオープンエリア(未決地域)が「アントワープ包囲戦」(9月28日-10月10日)の後、アントワープから撤退するベルギー軍によって占領され、10月17日頃に終了した。側面包囲の試みは、「ラ・バセの戦い」(10月10日-11月2日)、「メシーヌの戦い」(10月12日-11月2日)、および「アルマンティエールの戦い」(10月13日-11月2日)で、その結果決定的な(直接対面の)対戦となった。

>Terrain
 North-east France and the south-west Belgium are known as Flanders. West of a line between Arras and Calais in the north-west are chalk downlands, covered with soil sufficient for arable farming. East of the line, the land declines in a series of spurs into the Flanders plain, bounded by canals linking Douai, Béthune, St Omer and Calais. To the south-east, canals run between Lens, Lille, Roubaix and Courtrai, the Lys river from Courtrai to Ghent and to the north-west lies the sea. The plain is almost flat, apart from a line of low hills from Cassel, eastwards to Mont des Cats, Mont Noir, Mont Rouge, Scherpenberg and Mount Kemmel.
⇒地形
 フランス北東部とベルギー南西部は、フランドルとして知られている。北西部のアラスとカレーを結ぶ線の西側には石灰岩の低い丘が続き、耕作するに十分な土壌で覆われている。この線の東では、土地はドゥエー、ベトゥーン、サン・オメール、およびカレーを結ぶ運河に囲まれて、フランドル平原へと続く一連の山脚をなして下っていく。南東方向には、レンズ、リール、ルーベー、コートレの間を運河が走り、コートレからゲントへ向ってリス川が走り、そして北西には海がある。平原は、カッセルから東へ、モン・デ・キャッツ、モン・ノワール、モン・ルージュ、シェルペンベルク、およびケメル山という、低い丘陵地から離れるとほぼ平坦である。

>From Kemmel, a low ridge lies to the north-east, declining in elevation past Ypres through Wytschaete, Gheluvelt and Passchendaele, curving north then north-west to Dixmude where it merges with the plain. A coastal strip is about 10 mi (16 km) wide, near sea level and fringed by sand dunes. Inland the ground is mainly meadow, cut by canals, dykes, drainage ditches and roads built up on causeways. The Lys, Yser and upper Scheldt are canalised and between them the water level underground is close to the surface, rises further in the autumn and fills any dip, the sides of which then collapse. The ground surface quickly turns to a consistency of cream cheese and on the coast movement is confined to roads, except during frosts.
⇒ケメルから、低い尾根が北東に伸びて、下って行ってイープルを過ぎ、ウィツシャテ、ゲルベルト、パッシェンデールを通り、北に曲がってディクスミュードに至るが、そこで平野と合流する。沿岸帯は幅約10マイル(16キロ)で、海抜が海面に近く、砂丘に縁取られている。内陸の地面は主に牧草地で、運河、堤防、排水路、および、土手上に築かれた道路によって切り分けられている。リィス、イゼール、上シェルツは運河状になっているが、地下の水位は地表近くにあって、秋にはさらに水位が上がり、水面がいっぱいになると側面から崩れる。地表はすぐに、一様なクリームチーズ状に変わり、霜の間を除いて、海岸での動きは道路に限られてしまう。

投稿日時 - 2019-03-15 17:37:28

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回答ありがとうございました。

投稿日時 - 2019-03-17 15:43:41

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