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A major problem for the British was the lack of logistical infrastructure. When ships arrived at Basra, they had to be unloaded by small boats which then unloaded their cargo which was then stored in warehouses, which there were not enough of in Basra. Ships often sat for days waiting to be unloaded. Then supplies had to be sent north along the river in shallow draft river steamers because there were almost no roads north. Usually the amount of supplies being sent north was barely adequate to supply the forces in place. A plan to build a railway was rejected by the Indian Government in 1915, but after Kut it was approved. After the defeat at Kut, the British made a major effort to improve the ability to move men and equipment into theater, and keep them supplied. The port at Basra was greatly improved so that ships could be quickly unloaded. Good roads were built around Basra. Rest camps and supply dumps were created to receive men and material from the port. More and better river steamers were put into service moving supplies up river. New hospitals were also set up to better care for the sick and wounded. As a result, the British were able to bring more troops and equipment to the front lines and keep them properly supplied for a new offensive.

The new commander, General Maude, despite receiving secret orders from Robertson not to attempt to take Baghdad, was given additional reinforcements and equipment. For the next six months he trained and organized his army. At the same time, the Ottoman Sixth Army was growing weaker. Khalil Pasha received very few replacements, and ended up disbanding the weak 38th Division and used its soldiers as replacements for his other divisions, the 46th, 51st, 35th, and 52nd. Robertson changed his mind when it seemed that the Russians might advance to Mosul, removing any Turkish threat to Mesopotamia, and authorised Maude to attack in December 1916.

投稿日時 - 2016-01-24 19:21:28

QNo.9116503

困ってます

質問者が選んだベストアンサー

以下のとおりお答えします。英国軍の立て直しについて述べています。

>A major problem for the British was the lack of logistical infrastructure. When ships arrived at Basra, they had to be unloaded by small boats which then unloaded their cargo which was then stored in warehouses, which there were not enough of in Basra. Ships often sat for days waiting to be unloaded. Then supplies had to be sent north along the river in shallow draft river steamers because there were almost no roads north. Usually the amount of supplies being sent north was barely adequate to supply the forces in place. A plan to build a railway was rejected by the Indian Government in 1915, but after Kut it was approved.
⇒英国軍にとっての主要問題は、兵站学上のインフラストラクチャー(基盤組織・構造)の不足であった。汽船がバスラに到着する時、荷下しをして倉庫に蓄える貨物を小さいボートで運ぶ必要があったが、当時のバスラにはそれが十分なかった。汽船は、しばしば荷下しを待って数日間も停泊した。そして供給品はそれから、喫水線の浅い川汽船で川に沿って北へ送らねばならなかった。なぜなら、北上する道路はほとんどなかったからである。通常、北へ輸送される供給品の量は、当該場所の軍隊に供給するのに辛うじて足りるくらいだった。鉄道を敷設する計画は、1915年にインド政府によって拒絶されていたが、クツ(の戦い)の後にそれは承認された。

>After the defeat at Kut, the British made a major effort to improve the ability to move men and equipment into theater, and keep them supplied. The port at Basra was greatly improved so that ships could be quickly unloaded. Good roads were built around Basra. Rest camps and supply dumps were created to receive men and material from the port. More and better river steamers were put into service moving supplies up river. New hospitals were also set up to better care for the sick and wounded. As a result, the British were able to bring more troops and equipment to the front lines and keep them properly supplied for a new offensive.
⇒クツでの失敗の後英国軍は、兵士と機器を河岸段丘に移動し、受給能力を高めるのに多大の努力を注いだ。バスラの港は、汽船が迅速に荷下しできるよう、大幅に改善された。バスラの周辺によい道路が建てられた。汽船から兵士と材料物資を受け入れるために、休息用野営地と供給品の臨時集積場が造られた。川汽船が加増され、改善されて利用に供されたので、河川からの供給が向上した。新しい病院もまた、疾病や負傷の治療を改善するように設定された。結果として、英国軍は、より多くの軍隊と機器を前線に運び込んで、新たな攻撃のために適切な供給ができるようになった。

>The new commander, General Maude, despite receiving secret orders from Robertson not to attempt to take Baghdad, was given additional reinforcements and equipment. For the next six months he trained and organized his army. At the same time, the Ottoman Sixth Army was growing weaker. Khalil Pasha received very few replacements, and ended up disbanding the weak 38th Division and used its soldiers as replacements for his other divisions, the 46th, 51st, 35th, and 52nd. Robertson changed his mind when it seemed that the Russians might advance to Mosul, removing any Turkish threat to Mesopotamia, and authorised Maude to attack in December 1916.
⇒新しい司令官のモード将軍は、ロバートソンからバグダッドの奪取を試みることはしないようにという内密の命令を受け取っていたけれども、追加の強化隊や機器は供与された。次の6ヶ月間、彼は所属の軍隊を訓練し、組織した。時を同じうして、第6オスマントルコ方面軍はより弱体化していった。ハリル・パシャは交替要員を受け入れることがほとんどなく、その弱体化した第38師団は最終的に解散し、所属の兵士たちは、彼の管轄下の他の師団、第46、第51、第35、および第52師団の交代要員として収容された。ロバートソンは、ロシア人がモスルに進軍すると思われた時に、メソポタミアに対するトルコのいかなる脅威も取り除くことに考えを変更し、1916年12月モードに攻撃を認可した。

投稿日時 - 2016-01-25 01:27:00

お礼

回答有難うございました。

投稿日時 - 2016-01-25 14:22:17

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投稿日時 - 2016-01-24 19:25:33