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締切り済みの質問

(2)(3)を和訳[2]~[4]の問に答えて下さい

(1)Let us imagine an absolutely unbiased observer on another planet, perhaps on Mars, is examining human behavior on Earth, with the aid of a telescope whose magnification is too small to enable him to discern individuals and follow their separate behavior, but large enough for him to observe occurences such as migration of peoples, wars and similar great historical events.He would never gain the impression that human behavior was dectated by intelligence, still less by responsible morality. If we suppose our outside observerto be a being of pure reason, lacking instincts himself and unaware of the way in which all instincts in general and aggression in particular can go wrong, he would be at a complete loss how to explain history at all.Thus, the phenomena of history do not have responsible cases.It is a mere commonplace to say that they are caused by human nature.Unreasoning and unreasonable human nature causes two nations to compete, though no economic necessity compels them to do so; it induces two political parties or religious with amazingly similar programs of salvation to fight each other bitterly and it forces an Alexander or a Napoleon to sacrifice millions of lives in his attempt to unite the world under his rule.We have been taught to regard some of the persons who have committed these and similar absurdities with respect, even as "great" people, and we are all so accustomed to these phenomena that most of us fail to realize how stupid and undesirable the historical mass behavior of humanity actually is.
(2)Having realized [2][this], however, we cannot escape the question why reasonable beings do behave so un reasonably.Undeniably, there must be [3][superlatively strong factors] which are able to overcome the commands of individual reason so completely which are not influenced by experience and learning.As hegel said, "What experience and history teach us is this - that people and governments have never learned anything from history, or acted on principles derived from it."
(3)All of [4][these amazing paradoxes], however, find an unconstrained explanation, falling nto place like the piece of a jigsaw puzzle, if one assumes that human behavior, and particularly human social behavior, far from being determined by reason and cultural tradition alone, is still subject to all the laws prevailing in instinctive behavior.

[2][this]が指す日本語の内容を説明しなさい。
[3][superlatively strong factors]と最も関係の深い語を本文中から1語で抜き出しなさい。
[4][these amazing paradoxes]の内容を簡潔に表している表現を本文中から抜き出しなさい。

(1)は訳さなくて良いです。(2)(3)は和訳お願いします。

投稿日時 - 2014-10-05 21:51:25

QNo.8780302

すぐに回答ほしいです

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回答(1)

ANo.1

[2][this]が指す日本語の内容を説明しなさい。
⇒人間の歴史的な大衆行動が、いかに愚かで望ましくないことであるか。

[3][superlatively strong factors]と最も関係の深い語を本文中から1語で抜き出しなさい。⇒compete

[4][these amazing paradoxes]の内容を簡潔に表している表現を本文中から抜き出しなさい。⇒why reasonable beings do behave so unreasonably

(1)は訳さなくて良いです。(2)(3)は和訳お願いします。
⇒(2)このことを認識していてもなお私たちは、合理的な人間がなぜそれほど不合理に振舞うのかという疑問を回避することができません。紛れもなく、経験や学習によって影響を受けず、合理性を持つ個々の要求を完全に克服し得るような最大級の強力な要因があるに違いありません。ヘーゲルが言ったように、「経験と歴史から私たちが教わること―それはすなわち、かつて人々も政府も歴史から何も学習せず、あるいは、歴史に由来する法則に基づいて行動したためしはなかった」、ということです。
⇒(3)しかしながらもし人間行動を、特に人間の社会的マナーを、理性的・文化的伝統によって決定されることからほど遠く、依然として本能的行動において蔓延している法則に従うものだと仮定するなら、ジグソーパズルの1片が所定の場に収まるように、これらの驚くべき逆説はすべて何の拘束も受けないような説明を見出して、然るべき適所にはまり込みます。

投稿日時 - 2014-10-06 09:46:08