Differences in cultural values, logic, and thought patterns are often reflected in the very different ways Americans and Japanese organize and present information, ideas, and opinions.These differences lie at the root of many communication problems and exert a powerful influence on the process of of persuation negotiation and conflict resolution.
The rules of logic established by the Greeks and Romans are widely accepted in Western cultures, but this Western logic is by no means universal.Logic is a product of culture, and many Asian cultures such as the Japanese operate under different logical assumptions.
When Americans get confused and frustrated listening toJapanese, they often complainthat the Japanese "just are't logical" and seem incapable or unwilling to use traditional Western logic. This impression is largely due to cultural differences in reasorning and thought patterns.
From an early age, Americans are thought to be orderly in outlining their facts and in summarizing their main points according to framework that reflects Western logical structures.The logical way of presenting ideas in the West could be called linear or "straight-line"logic, which emphasizes direct and explicit communication.The most important aspects of straight-line logic are organizing your presentation in outline form and "getting straight to the point."In general, more low-context mainstream American patterns of thought and presentation are analogous to lines because all parts of the message must be explicity connected clearly and directly.
But the Japanese do not learn to order their facts or present information and ideas in the same way.They consider the practice of ordering facts for others comparable to tying a child's shoelaces for him after the child has already learned the skill.American linear, one-step-at-a-time arguments and logic can seem immature to the Japanese, and Western logic is often perceived as instrusive - an attempt to get inside the heads of other people and try to do their thinking for them.
But if Americans think in a linear way, then how do Japanese think?A natural response would be that since the circle is the opposite of line, then the Japanese probably think in circles.It is said that the more high-context Japanese prefer to use the logic patterns that emphasize talking "around " the subject rather than on it.The Japanese start at the edges with a wealth of background information and explanations and the n gradually "circle in" on the thesis and main points.
However, in some respects, Jappanese patterns of thought and presentation are not like lines at all, but like a series of "dots." Parts of the message are contained in the individual dots, it is up to the audience to link the dots in their heads.In low-context cultures the meaning of communication is stated to the audience directly and all the steps and links are clearly put forth by the speaker verbally.But in high-context cultures the meaning of communication is elicited by the audience indirectly and intuitively - all the steps and links do not have to be clearly put forth verbally.

投稿日時 - 2014-08-30 11:34:33









しかし日本人は、事実を整理したり、情報や概念を提示したりする仕方を、同じように学ぶのではありません。彼らは、他人のために事実をわきまえる行為を斟酌しますが、それは、子どもがすでに技術を学習した後なのに靴ひもを結んでやろうとすることになぞらえることができます。アメリカ人の線的な「一回に一段階」説とその論理は、日本人にとっては子どもっぽいと見えるのかも知れません。そして、西欧の論理はしばしば教化的なもの ― 他人の頭の内部に入り込み、彼らの考えていることを彼らに代って行おうとする試み ― として知覚されるのです。


しかしながら、幾つかの面で日本人の思考やプレゼンテーションの様式はまったく線的でなく、むしろ一続きの「点」に似ています。メッセージの部分は、個々の点に含まれ、頭の中で点と点を連結することは聞き手側の責任に任されます。文脈依存度のより低い文化では、コミュニケーションの意味は、聞き手に直接述べられ、中間段階とその連結はすべて話者によって口頭から明白に表出されます。しかし、文脈依存度のより高い文化では、コミュニケーションの意味は、聞き手によって間接的・直観的に引き出されるのです。― 必ずしもすべての中間段階とその連結が口頭で明白に表出される必要はない、ということです。

投稿日時 - 2014-08-30 20:44:39



投稿日時 - 2014-08-31 14:59:53