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The Hundred Days Offensive was the final period of the First World War, during which the Allies launched a series of offensives against the Central Powers on the Western Front from 8 August to 11 November 1918, beginning with the Battle of Amiens. The offensive essentially pushed the Germans out of France, forcing them to retreat beyond the Hindenburg Line, and was followed by an armistice. The term "Hundred Days Offensive" does not refer to a specific battle or unified strategy, but rather the rapid series of Allied victories starting with the Battle of Amiens.The Spring Offensive of the German Army on the Western Front had begun on 21 March 1918 with Operation Michael and had petered out by July. The Germans had advanced to the river Marne but failed to achieve a decisive breakthrough. When Operation Marne-Rheims ended in July, the Allied supreme commander Ferdinand Foch ordered a counter-offensive which became known as the Second Battle of the Marne. The Germans, recognising their untenable position, withdrew from the Marne towards the north. For this victory, Foch was granted the title Marshal of France.
Foch considered the time had arrived for the Allies to return to the offensive. The American Expeditionary Force (AEF, General John J. Pershing), was present in France in large numbers and invigorated the Allied armies. :472 Pershing was keen to use his army in an independent role. The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) had also been reinforced by large numbers of troops returned from the Sinai and Palestine Campaign and the Italian Front and replacements held back in Britain by the Prime Minister, David Lloyd George. :155
A number of proposals were considered and, finally, Foch agreed on a proposal by Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig, Commander-in-Chief (C-in-C) of the BEF, to strike on the River Somme, east of Amiens and south-west of the site of the 1916 Battle of the Somme, with the intention of forcing the Germans away from the vital Amiens–Paris railway. :472 The Somme was chosen as a suitable site for the offensive for several reasons. As in 1916, it marked the boundary between the BEF and the French armies, in this case defined by the Amiens–Roye road, allowing the two armies to cooperate. Also the Picardy countryside provided a good surface for tanks, which was not the case in Flanders.

The Hundred Days Offensive 百日攻勢
Battle of Amiens アミアンの戦い

投稿日時 - 2018-06-24 23:54:44

QNo.9511822

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>The Hundred Days Offensive was the final period of the First World War, during which the Allies launched a series of offensives against the Central Powers on the Western Front from 8 August to 11 November 1918, beginning with the Battle of Amiens. The offensive essentially pushed the Germans out of France, forcing them to retreat beyond the Hindenburg Line, and was followed by an armistice. The term "Hundred Days Offensive" does not refer to a specific battle or unified strategy, but rather the rapid series of Allied victories starting with the Battle of Amiens.
⇒「百日攻勢」は、第一次世界大戦の最後の期間で、その間の8月8日から11月11日にかけて、連合国軍が「アミアンの戦い」をもって西部前線上の中央同盟国に対する一連の攻撃を開始した。基本的にドイツ軍はフランスから追い出され、ヒンデンブルク戦線を越えて退却し、その後に休戦が続いた。「百日攻勢」という言葉は、特定の戦闘や統一戦略を指すのではなく、「アミアンの戦い」から始まった矢継ぎ早の連戦と連合国軍の勝利のシリーズを指している。

>The Spring Offensive of the German Army on the Western Front had begun on 21 March 1918 with Operation Michael and had petered out by July. The Germans had advanced to the river Marne but failed to achieve a decisive breakthrough. When Operation Marne-Rheims ended in July, the Allied supreme commander Ferdinand Foch ordered a counter-offensive which became known as the Second Battle of the Marne. The Germans, recognising their untenable position, withdrew from the Marne towards the north. For this victory, Foch was granted the title Marshal of France.
⇒1918年3月21日、西部前線におけるドイツ軍の「春攻撃」が「ミヒャエル作戦行動」をもって始まり、7月までに漸減消失していった。ドイツ軍はマルヌ川まで進軍したが、決定的な突破を達成することはできなかった。「マルヌ=ランス作戦行動」が7月に終わったとき、連合国軍最高司令官のフェルディナン・フォッシュは、「第2次マルヌの戦い」として知られることになる反撃を命じた。ドイツ軍は、自軍のもちこたえられない立場を認識して、マルヌから北に向かって撤退した。この勝利のためにフォッシュは、フランス軍の陸軍元帥という称号を与えられた。

>Foch considered the time had arrived for the Allies to return to the offensive. The American Expeditionary Force (AEF, General John J. Pershing), was present in France in large numbers and invigorated the Allied armies. :472 Pershing was keen to use his army in an independent role. The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) had also been reinforced by large numbers of troops returned from the Sinai and Palestine Campaign and the Italian Front and replacements held back in Britain by the Prime Minister, David Lloyd George.:155
⇒フォッシュは、連合国軍が攻撃に復帰する時期が到来したと考えた。米国遠征軍(AEF、ジョン・J.パーシング将軍麾下)がフランスに多数駐在し、連合国軍を活性化させた。パーシングは、彼の軍隊を独立した役割で使うことに熱心であった。英国遠征軍(BEF)も、「シナイ・パレスチナ野戦」やイタリアの前線から帰還した多数の軍隊によって強化され、ダビッド・ロイド=ジョージ首相によって英国内での再配置が行われた。

>A number of proposals were considered and, finally, Foch agreed on a proposal by Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig, Commander-in-Chief (C-in-C) of the BEF, to strike on the River Somme, east of Amiens and south-west of the site of the 1916 Battle of the Somme, with the intention of forcing the Germans away from the vital Amiens–Paris railway. :472 The Somme was chosen as a suitable site for the offensive for several reasons. As in 1916, it marked the boundary between the BEF and the French armies, in this case defined by the Amiens–Roye road, allowing the two armies to cooperate. Also the Picardy countryside provided a good surface for tanks, which was not the case in Flanders.
⇒多くの提案が検討されたが、最終的にフォッシュは、重要なアミアン-パリ鉄道からドイツ軍を遠ざけることを意図して、アミアン東側のソンム川と1916年の「ソンムの戦い」の跡地の南西側を攻撃することで、BEF総司令官の元帥ダグラス・ヘイグ卿による提案に合意した。ソンムは、いくつかの理由で攻撃のための適切な場所として選ばれたのである。1916年ではBEFとフランス軍の間の境界を画していたが、今回の場合もこの時と同じようにアミアン-ロィエ道路によって定義されたので、両軍の協力が可能になった。また、ピカルディの田園は、フランドルの場合にはなかった戦車のために好都合な地表面を提供した。

投稿日時 - 2018-07-04 10:40:34

お礼

回答ありがとうございました。

投稿日時 - 2018-07-04 14:37:21

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